Wednesday, July 30, 2014

PCB: Materials Used in Manufacturing

printed circuit boards
Need of a perfect material
The properties of the manufactured PCB depends to a great extent (electrically, mechanically and chemically) on the application and the environment it has to be used. The materials employed in the manufacturing process play a key role in determining the properties of the resultant PCB. Therefore, selection of suitable materials for manufacturing of PCB is quite important as they are responsible both to the expected performance of the PCB as well as the equipment made.

A common PCB needs generally a conductive ink and a substrate on which the ink has to be deposited to design conductive paths on the substrate on which components can be placed as per will and need suitable for the application. Broadly, they can be laminates, copper clad laminates, or resin impregnated materials.

Conductive ink
The popular approaches use additive method of depositing a conductive ink onto the substrate to minimize material wastage and achieve greater resolution.

These inks are classified as fired high solid systems or PTF polymer thick film systems. These inks allow print circuit designs on a variety of substrate materials ranging from teflon to paper. The conductive flakes generally consist of conductive materials like powdered silver or carbon.

Silver inks have seen multiple uses in technologies like (Radio-frequency identification) RFID, keyboards and windshield defrosters.

Laminate materials
Laminate materials are particularly the substrates used for depositing the ink and binding different layers of the PCB in case of multilayer PCB.
The materials prominently used as laminates are:

1. BT-Epoxy: It is a group of thermosetting resins. It is obtained by mixing the epoxy and BT (Bismaleimide-Triazine) resins. This material has high glass transition temperature up to 300 degrees C and and  has a very low dielectric constant.

2. Composite Epoxy Material (CEM) : This is a class of materials where woven glass fabric structures with non woven glass core is combined with epoxy resin. There are different types of CEMs :

1. CEM1 : Single layered woven glass fabric with cellulose paper based laminate. It is of low cost and is flame retardant.
2. CEM2 : Woven glass fabric and cellulose paper core.
3. CEM3 : It's similar to FR4; flame retardant and white colored.
4. CEM4 : It's similar to CEM3 but not flame retardant.
5. CEM5 : Polyester woven glass core.

3.  Cyanate esters : They are bisphenol and novolac based chemical substances. They have the property of getting treated many times in a varied range of high to low temperatures. They have a high glass transition temperature up to 400 degrees C  and posses a very low dielectric constant. They are smoke, fire and toxicity resistant and their toughness gives them an edge over epoxies in space applications.

4. Flame Resistant-2(FR-2) : Basically, it is a synthetic resin bonded paper made by impregnating paper with a plasticized phenol formaldehyde resin. It's used in low end consumer electronics.

5. Flame Resistant-4 (FR-4) : These are glass reinforced epoxy laminate sheets made by combining glass fibers with a fire resistant epoxy resin. It's a widely used laminate material. When a thin layer of copper is deposited on both sides of the laminate, it's known as copper-clad laminate.

6. Polyimide : It is made by polymerizing imide monomers. They are flexible, high heat resistant and thermally stable. Used in producing flexible PCBs.

7. PTFE (Teflon) : Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE ) is commonly known as Teflon and is a polymer of tetrafluoroethane. It is water resistant and has a high temperature bearing capacity, which makes them ideal for the use in equipments like microwaves and furnaces.

Need for advanced materials
With the structures getting smaller with the time and the utilities and circuits getting more complex, electromagnetic interference problems arise. They obstruct the development of 3D printing. This is due to the difference in fabrication material used for different components and parts of the PCB.

This problem can be overcome by looking for anisotropic materials and materials with spatially variant lattices.

Material used for the purpose of PCB fabrication still has a long way to go in order to improvise their structure to suit the diverse applications.

Tuesday, July 29, 2014

Responsibilities of a Criminal Defense Lawyer

Criminal defense lawyers specialize in defense cases involving individuals. They are also called as defense attorneys, public defenders, defend individuals etc. Some criminal defense lawyers are privately retained and others are under the employment of various jurisdictions. These lawyers researches, argues and prepare for their clients. Criminal defense lawyers mostly work on the criminal cases as they are expertize in that field. So, these lawyers will have more grip to handle the cases easily. There are several roles and responsibilities of a criminal defense lawyer and some of them are explained below.   

Responsibilities of a Criminal Defense Lawyer:
There are several responsibilities and the duties that are to be performed by a lawyer to win their clients case in the court of law and also to become a good lawyer.
  • He should be capable in competent defense. Competent defense is nothing but cross examining the witness, preparing the statements and also to present the documents relevant to the case. He will represent the client vigorously.
  • They will investigate the case thoroughly and perform the legal actions.
  • Acquires some evidences related to the case and to prove them in the court of law.
  • They examine the crime sense and collect the proves from there.
  • Attorney gives advices the client and tells them about  there rights and also ask them whether they have any witness to prove the case.
  • Some clients will hesitate to ask their wishes to their attorney so, here the criminal defense lawyer will help you  to solve this issue. He/she will take the wishes of you and gives importance to them.
  • Mainly he give confidentiality about you are your case. He will keep all the information confidential regarding your case and will not reveal it to anyone.
  • They will help the people who are really innocent guides them all the way.
  • Lawyer will have discussion with the prospector for asking them to reduces the charges.
  • Attorney also tells the client about the case updates from time to time.
For performing all this duties criminal lawyer must have the qualifications required to become a lawyer and along with this he/she must have a license to represent the case.
Thus, the criminal lawyer helps his or her clients and performs their responsibilities. Apart from that they must also ensure that the are being loyal towards their client and make them feel comfort.

Tuesday, July 22, 2014

Safe Driving Tips

Safety is of prime importance for all - drivers and the passengers of  the car as well those on the road. You need to take the necessary precautions while driving. Following these tips while driving, which is likely to keep you in safe mode. Here are a few tips for safe driving.
  • Don't drink and drive
This is first and foremost tip that every driver should keep in mind. Driving in unconscious state when you are drunk is a big crime in many countries like USA. This may lead to unknowing accidents that may not do intentionally. For this the law will give some serious punishments to the driver of the vehicle. So, better avoid it when you are going for a drive.
  • Use seat belts:
Seat belts protects you from many dangerous situations. It reduces the impact of getting injured when your car slips or when it is crashed and also from sudden brakes. Many people are dying because of not using seat belts while driving and there is a law in many countries for the people to use seat belts when they are in car if not followed leads to some punishments by law.
  • Deflect distractions:
The main cause for distractions is using the mobile phones for texting and making calls. It is the one of the main reasons for death of many people. Some other reasons like using electronic devices and other things may also cause distractions. So, avoid them while driving.
  • Don't Drive Beyond the Speed Limit:
There are some rules and laws to be followed while driving in a car or else for the driver of the car. One among them is following the speed limit. Every state or car will have the speed limit based on there road conditions in that areas. So, driver of the car should follow those rules deflecting them many not only lead to penalization by law but some time may lead to serious accidents. Speed is one of the major factor for the youth because these are the people who while have the drives with great speed.
  • Be Attentive When Your are Driving Bad Weather:
When you are driving in bad weather conditions like heavy rain, snow. It is necessary to take safety measures or precautions. Driving in snow and rain may lead to slipping of the cars with no control over it. So, your car must have some systems like Anti-lock braking system (ABS), Electronic Stability Control (EBS), Auto Emergency Braking etc which can reduce the accidents or impact of it.
  • Don't Drive if you are Drowsy or Stressed:
It is batter to handle the driving position to some one else if you are drowsy or stressed because in that situation you will not have control over driving and you may some times get in to accidents unknowingly.
These tips are very important for any car driver or the owner to keep them and their family safe when they are in car.

Related Links:
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Peru IN Ram dealership
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Tuesday, March 4, 2014

Tips for Traveling with Pets

Pets are like family member for most people. Planning a trip with your pets can be a great experience for everyone.

Here are a few tips to make traveling with your pet enjoyable.

1) Feed your pets several hours before starting your journey: It is better to feed your pet several hours before starting your trip if you are worried that there is a possibility of your pet heaving and vomiting. Also, see to it that you have not left any morsels of food items like burgers wrappers or other choking hazards in the car.

2) Your pets safety should be the first priority: Pets may enjoy keeping his head out of the window, but this way riding can expose your pet to the risk of lung infections or ear damage. Also keep their paws inside.

3) Take/pack first aid kit: It is important to carry the essential items when traveling with pets. Some key items include pet's food, antiseptic cream, eye drops, tweezers and gauge tape. Moreover, packing some of your pet's favorite toys can make your pet feel comfortable while on road, especially when going for long trip. Make sure that you also have the phone number of your pet's vet in case of an emergency.

4) Use some restraint: Just like human beings, animals also need safety in the car. Carriers are best to secure your animal. We get these carriers in different shapes, sizes and materials. But see to it that, it is well ventilated. Its size should be in a way that your pet can sit and lie in it. Most important is, it should come in car.

5) Do not leave your pet alone in the car: In hot weather, temperature is more and  just like humans, animals can suffer from heat stroke easily and in a very cold climate, pats can suffer from hypothermia. Either of them can lead to serious health issues. If you want to leave your pet in the car and go for some work, roll down the window pans and park your car in shade.

6) Take short breaks throughout the journey: Make sure that you stop every hour or two and go for a walk. This will let your pet use toilet and can also stretch its legs. This is also a great way for your pet to avoid getting bored.

Traveling with your pets should be exciting and not a stressful one. By following these tips, you will enjoy taking your pet wherever you go.

Tuesday, February 4, 2014

Benefits of Content Marketing for Your Small Businesses

Content is the buzzword in digital marketing. Content takes the form of words included in advertising. Why are people after content? This is because it is an excellent marketing strategy that helps and makes the visitor read and make purchase decision. It also works like a viral (word of mouth) from one to many. For a small business owner, what is important is they need more than satisfied customers who spreads his business. In this post, you will read more about the benefits of doing content marketing in your small businesses.
  • It is a cost-effective advertising option: Content marketing is a cost-effective marketing strategy where you need to put a little effort on creating content and posting them in your websites, social media sites and other third party sites. It takes only a chunk of your marketing budget. When you compare with the traditional form of advertising such as television, radio ads, billboards, posters etc. It takes your breath and a lot of money, efforts, time in advertising them.
  • It brings credibility: Blogs, articles are the important tools of content marketing that brings credibility to your online business. The more content you publish, the more your business gets exposure.  So, create a valuable informative content that should be able to resolve all the issues or problems that your target audiences are facing. Therefore, it is a best strategy to lure the competitors' customers to your products and services.
  • It is a long lasting strategy: Unlike other forms of advertising, content publications such as blogs, articles will drive traffic to your website long even after they were initially published. But this depends upon the quality of the content you have published. So, make sure to create and post quality and informative content.
  • It builds customer relationship: Through content you can communicate with your visitors/targeted audience. It is an effective strategy in building relationship by engaging the customers with your compelling content. As content is the means that speaks who you are, what you are in, your skills, knowledge, expertise and so on.
  • Drives traffic to your website: Search engines like Google consider content in giving the search engine rankings. Here you need to provide a quality, informative and compelling content that should attract, engage and retain the customers. A happy customer always tries to come to visit your site for more information. This happens if you update the information on a regular basis. The ultimate results is – more visits, more traffic and more the chance of conversions.
Therefore, develop good content that can attract, engage and retain the customers. So, make sure to post your content or share links to your social media sites and the third party sides.

Tuesday, January 28, 2014

Myths on Affiliate Marketing

adspeed ad server
Affiliate marketing involves partnership between an online retailer that who wants to promote their products or services and a website owner on commission basis. Affiliate marketing has become more popular and is a big business too. With this, many people are showing interest on affiliate marketing. There are some myths on affiliate marketing, they are as follows:
  • Affiliate marketing is too easy or too difficult: Some people say that the affiliate marketing is easy and some people say that it is very difficult. Anyone can get involved in affiliate marketing, there is no special qualification for this as it contains the word marketing so need a marketing degree. In fact it is depends on the capability of the person those who perform the tasks. It is all matter of the website performance, potential visitors, brand recognition of the company and the customers trust on advertiser and the website. Attracting of customers to website is depends on the content and make the visit to sale is depends on the attractiveness of ad.
  • Money can earn quickly and easily: There are so many affiliate marketers those are earning some good amount of money through the affiliate marketing. So there is definitely some scope to make money through this industry. But before they start earnings, they put a lot of effort to get success. If you are the starter, you need to do a lot of hard work to make a reputable website or blog. As well there is a great competition in the industry from many other websites.
  • One affiliate program is enough: Some people expect that one affiliate program is enough for their site. But it won't give the choice to the customer to select the best option to them. If there are some good reasonable number of affiliate programs and have a good choice to the customers, the percentage of conversion into sales will increase. It will beneficial to both advertiser and the website owner.
  • No earnings with affiliate marketing: Another myth is that there is no money with affiliate marketing. It is really wrong. In the last year top top merchants paid millions of dollars. Spending on digital marketing and affiliate marketing is increasing year over year by different industries.
  • Website management requirement is very low for affiliate marketing: To become a affiliate marketer is a difficult task. It requires a lot of hard work to have a qualified affiliate marketing website and having some links or advertisements from advertisers or ad servers is a tedious task. Even after the affiliate marketer achieved a good stand, the website needs to maintain properly with a quality content.
Most myths are relating to performance and the money with the affiliate marketing websites. If you manage your website or blog well it will gives you a good results over a time. However, it is a continuous process to face the competition.

Monday, January 20, 2014

Tips on Getting Prospects to Download Dealership Mobile App

Mobile applications can help auto dealerships sell more cars, earn new business and spread their brands. But to promote these programs dealerships need to commit. A mobile application should not be a tough sale for an experienced car sales person. In the app market, dealership app are some of the most practical apps. With a good quality app, potential customers can search or browse the inventory, schedule the appointments with the dealer and contact the dealership directly with the app. These are all possible with a unified platform in the mobile application. To find the right vehicle more and more car buyers are using multiple devices. According to, the car shoppers usage of multiple devices will double to more than 50% by 2018. So it seems like a wise decision by the dealerships to jump on the mobile technology.
  • Making as great: An unreliable mobile app does not succeed in the market because smartphone users depend on those that are convenient. The first step in promotion of an app is making an app worth promoting. Consider the major complaints that the smartphone users have with the apps. According to Apigee,  an analytics firm, 76% of mobile phone users give an app that freezes a bad review.
Users also complain about that apps load slowly and sometimes crashed. Do not release the app until it is properly tested across different platforms and devices. You may have an urgency to release the mobile app, but remember that a faulty app will damage your dealership's reputation in moving forward with mobile. To boost your application's appeal, offer some incentives. Include features such as upgrades, gifts or auto warranties (like those are available through as a part of your mobile app. Not only interested consumers are more likely to download, they are also likely to purchase.
  • Sell your mobile app: The dealership sales personnel spend their time persuading people to make significant investments in the vehicles. When compared with a twenty five thousand dollars sedan, a less expensive mobile app is an easy sell. When the sales people talking to potential customers, they can easily promote the app. Prospects will appreciate the convenience of a mobile app even if they do not close the deal. And those people will think about the dealership when they are using their phones.
  • Online advertising: Advertise on the digital platforms if you decide your dealership mobile app to reach digital users. PPI (Pay Per Install) advertising is one of the efficient ways to advertise your dealership app. When a user installs your mobile app, you need to pay only for advertising. Target advertising is the key for a successful PPI campaign. It seeks the impressions from users those who are interested in the product. Mobile advertising can direct users to a landing page, which enables them to download the mobile app on the spot.
If you want to reach a broad user base, develop your mobile app for both Android and iOS users. If you leave either out, you will lose an important pool of potential users. Android beat iOS to one million mark. However, in the mobile market apple remains a major player. If you want to partner with an app developer, ensure that those are capable of developing your program across at least these two major platforms.

Related Links: 
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