Thursday, September 4, 2014

Common Causes of Spark Plug Failure

The spark plug is one of the most important components in the fuel injection system.
It's used to ignite the air/fuel mixture in the combustion chamber. The spark plug is mostly used in the gasoline engines. A bad or worn out spark plug can affects the performance of the engine, fuel economy and even leads to starting problems. The failure in spark plug is the main reason for breakdown of vehicles.

In this article, let us discuss some of the common causes of spark plug failure. The common causes of spark plug failure are fouling, Spark plug wear out or develop cracks, overheat. There are different types of fouling like carbon fouling, oil fouling.

Carbon fouling
  • Carbon fouling is the most common cause of the spark plug failure. Carbon fouling means gathering of carbon deposits on the spark plug.
  • The accumulation of carbon deposits happens due to choking, which leads to blocked air filter. If the car is idle for a long time, the temperature drops.
  • Due to temperature drop the combustion deposits on the spark plug are not burnt and develops into a thick black carbon near the spark plug causing carbon fouling.
  • You can see the deposits of carbon the spark plug visually.
Oil fouling
  • Oil fouling occurs due to the presence of oil in the combustion chamber.
  • Oil enters the combustion chamber through the piston or walls of the cylinders when they are worn out.
  • The oil enters the combustion chamber due to disproportionate oil to fuel ratio.
Engine overheating
  • If the operating temperature of the engine is more than 1600o F, it overheats the cylinder and damages the firing-end and electrodes of the spark plug.
  • Overheating of spark plug can also causes abnormal combustion.
Mechanical damage
  • Threads of the spark plug can get damaged due to improper handling while installing. Damaged spark plugs result in voltage leak in the cylinders.
Worn out spark plugs
  • Generally the firing end of the spark plug wears out or gets damaged.
  • The gap between the electrodes will become wider when spark plug is used for a long time.
  • Due to this, normal voltage may not be sufficient to ignite the combustion chamber.
  • A worn out spark plug leads to misfiring and causes starting problem.
Poor acceleration
  • Another common sign of failure of spark plug is poor acceleration.
  • Due to this acceleration pushes down and does not immediately boost the speed of the vehicle.
  • Even it appears like the engine is trying hard to pull the vehicle due to the poor acceleration.
  • Regular maintenance can improve the performance of the spark plug and it is likely to last longer.

Wednesday, July 30, 2014

PCB: Materials Used in Manufacturing

Need of a perfect material
The properties of the manufactured PCB depends to a great extent (electrically, mechanically and chemically) on the application and the environment it has to be used. The materials employed in the manufacturing process play a key role in determining the properties of the resultant PCB. Therefore, selection of suitable materials for manufacturing of PCB is quite important as they are responsible both to the expected performance of the PCB as well as the equipment made.

A common PCB needs generally a conductive ink and a substrate on which the ink has to be deposited to design conductive paths on the substrate on which components can be placed as per will and need suitable for the application. Broadly, they can be laminates, copper clad laminates, or resin impregnated materials.

Conductive ink
The popular approaches use additive method of depositing a conductive ink onto the substrate to minimize material wastage and achieve greater resolution.

These inks are classified as fired high solid systems or PTF polymer thick film systems. These inks allow print circuit designs on a variety of substrate materials ranging from teflon to paper. The conductive flakes generally consist of conductive materials like powdered silver or carbon.

Silver inks have seen multiple uses in technologies like (Radio-frequency identification) RFID, keyboards and windshield defrosters.

Laminate materials
Laminate materials are particularly the substrates used for depositing the ink and binding different layers of the PCB in case of multilayer PCB.
The materials prominently used as laminates are:

1. BT-Epoxy: It is a group of thermosetting resins. It is obtained by mixing the epoxy and BT (Bismaleimide-Triazine) resins. This material has high glass transition temperature up to 300 degrees C and and  has a very low dielectric constant.

2. Composite Epoxy Material (CEM) : This is a class of materials where woven glass fabric structures with non woven glass core is combined with epoxy resin. There are different types of CEMs :

1. CEM1 : Single layered woven glass fabric with cellulose paper based laminate. It is of low cost and is flame retardant.
2. CEM2 : Woven glass fabric and cellulose paper core.
3. CEM3 : It's similar to FR4; flame retardant and white colored.
4. CEM4 : It's similar to CEM3 but not flame retardant.
5. CEM5 : Polyester woven glass core.

3.  Cyanate esters : They are bisphenol and novolac based chemical substances. They have the property of getting treated many times in a varied range of high to low temperatures. They have a high glass transition temperature up to 400 degrees C  and posses a very low dielectric constant. They are smoke, fire and toxicity resistant and their toughness gives them an edge over epoxies in space applications.

4. Flame Resistant-2(FR-2) : Basically, it is a synthetic resin bonded paper made by impregnating paper with a plasticized phenol formaldehyde resin. It's used in low end consumer electronics.

5. Flame Resistant-4 (FR-4) : These are glass reinforced epoxy laminate sheets made by combining glass fibers with a fire resistant epoxy resin. It's a widely used laminate material. When a thin layer of copper is deposited on both sides of the laminate, it's known as copper-clad laminate.

6. Polyimide : It is made by polymerizing imide monomers. They are flexible, high heat resistant and thermally stable. Used in producing flexible PCBs.

7. PTFE (Teflon) : Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE ) is commonly known as Teflon and is a polymer of tetrafluoroethane. It is water resistant and has a high temperature bearing capacity, which makes them ideal for the use in equipments like microwaves and furnaces.

Need for advanced materials
With the structures getting smaller with the time and the utilities and circuits getting more complex, electromagnetic interference problems arise. They obstruct the development of 3D printing. This is due to the difference in fabrication material used for different components and parts of the PCB.

This problem can be overcome by looking for anisotropic materials and materials with spatially variant lattices.

Material used for the purpose of PCB fabrication still has a long way to go in order to improvise their structure to suit the diverse applications.

Tuesday, July 29, 2014

Responsibilities of a Criminal Defense Lawyer

Criminal defense lawyers specialize in defense cases involving individuals. They are also called as defense attorneys, public defenders, defend individuals etc. Some criminal defense lawyers are privately retained and others are under the employment of various jurisdictions. These lawyers researches, argues and prepare for their clients. Criminal defense lawyers mostly work on the criminal cases as they are expertize in that field. So, these lawyers will have more grip to handle the cases easily. There are several roles and responsibilities of a criminal defense lawyer and some of them are explained below.   

Responsibilities of a Criminal Defense Lawyer:
There are several responsibilities and the duties that are to be performed by a lawyer to win their clients case in the court of law and also to become a good lawyer.
  • He should be capable in competent defense. Competent defense is nothing but cross examining the witness, preparing the statements and also to present the documents relevant to the case. He will represent the client vigorously.
  • They will investigate the case thoroughly and perform the legal actions.
  • Acquires some evidences related to the case and to prove them in the court of law.
  • They examine the crime sense and collect the proves from there.
  • Attorney gives advices the client and tells them about  there rights and also ask them whether they have any witness to prove the case.
  • Some clients will hesitate to ask their wishes to their attorney so, here the criminal defense lawyer will help you  to solve this issue. He/she will take the wishes of you and gives importance to them.
  • Mainly he give confidentiality about you are your case. He will keep all the information confidential regarding your case and will not reveal it to anyone.
  • They will help the people who are really innocent guides them all the way.
  • Lawyer will have discussion with the prospector for asking them to reduces the charges.
  • Attorney also tells the client about the case updates from time to time.
For performing all this duties criminal lawyer must have the qualifications required to become a lawyer and along with this he/she must have a license to represent the case.
Thus, the criminal lawyer helps his or her clients and performs their responsibilities. Apart from that they must also ensure that the are being loyal towards their client and make them feel comfort.

Tuesday, July 22, 2014

Safe Driving Tips

Safety is of prime importance for all - drivers and the passengers of  the car as well those on the road. You need to take the necessary precautions while driving. Following these tips while driving, which is likely to keep you in safe mode. Here are a few tips for safe driving.
  • Don't drink and drive
This is first and foremost tip that every driver should keep in mind. Driving in unconscious state when you are drunk is a big crime in many countries like USA. This may lead to unknowing accidents that may not do intentionally. For this the law will give some serious punishments to the driver of the vehicle. So, better avoid it when you are going for a drive.
  • Use seat belts:
Seat belts protects you from many dangerous situations. It reduces the impact of getting injured when your car slips or when it is crashed and also from sudden brakes. Many people are dying because of not using seat belts while driving and there is a law in many countries for the people to use seat belts when they are in car if not followed leads to some punishments by law.
  • Deflect distractions:
The main cause for distractions is using the mobile phones for texting and making calls. It is the one of the main reasons for death of many people. Some other reasons like using electronic devices and other things may also cause distractions. So, avoid them while driving.
  • Don't Drive Beyond the Speed Limit:
There are some rules and laws to be followed while driving in a car or else for the driver of the car. One among them is following the speed limit. Every state or car will have the speed limit based on there road conditions in that areas. So, driver of the car should follow those rules deflecting them many not only lead to penalization by law but some time may lead to serious accidents. Speed is one of the major factor for the youth because these are the people who while have the drives with great speed.
  • Be Attentive When Your are Driving Bad Weather:
When you are driving in bad weather conditions like heavy rain, snow. It is necessary to take safety measures or precautions. Driving in snow and rain may lead to slipping of the cars with no control over it. So, your car must have some systems like Anti-lock braking system (ABS), Electronic Stability Control (EBS), Auto Emergency Braking etc which can reduce the accidents or impact of it.
  • Don't Drive if you are Drowsy or Stressed:
It is batter to handle the driving position to some one else if you are drowsy or stressed because in that situation you will not have control over driving and you may some times get in to accidents unknowingly.
These tips are very important for any car driver or the owner to keep them and their family safe when they are in car.

Related Links:
Durham Buick
Worcester MA Area Jeep Dealer
Lakeland area Chrysler dealer
Tracy Chevrolet Dealership
Peru IN Ram dealership
South San Francisco area Fiat Dealers
 

Wednesday, April 16, 2014

What is Content Marketing All About?

Content marketing means writing and publishing content that is relevant and informative. The content published should help the prospects in their buying decision, so that it attracts them and converts them in to loyal customers.

Importance of content marketing
Content is one of the most important elements for a website. Following will help you understand the importance of content marketing for any business :

Strong customer relationship
A content that is great will help in solving customer problems and will not push the product. Once the customers sees your honesty in helping them tackle their day to day challenges with the content you provide, they will develop strong relationship with your brand.

Credibility
You will earn a reputation in your industry with the content like white papers, ebooks, blogs or case studies. If the content is authoritative and informative, it shows that you know your industry, product and audience. It gives clarity to users and keeps them engaged.

You become a reliable source of information
If you are producing a content that is strong (in terms of influence it creates among your audiences), relevant and informative, you will be able to make a good reputation in your niche. This will take some time as it requires communicating your messages accurately and understanding the need of the target audience. Thus the ultimate goal should be to become leader in your industry.

Educates and empowers customers
A good content strategy not only helps in educating your customers about the product but also helps them in understanding your industry better. The better they know about your products/services, the more supportive will they be. Thus, it makes easier for your sales team attract them and convert them in to loyal buyers. Everyone likes to have more knowledge so help them and keep them informed with your good content. This helps you make visitors to come back to your website.

Fewer customer complaints and calls
The educated customers will contact your call centers less often as your content helps them to solve their problems.

Positive associations
Your website content not only helps in recognizing you as a leader in an industry but also you will stand as one who carries a positive image online and thus helps build brand in the long run. Good content helps people in enjoying personal connections coming with content marketing.
Over time, you will find big presence online by being positively associated with doing good to your customers.

Content marketing is a cost effective, simple strategy for businesses. For small businesses, it is a more useful because they cannot afford to expensive internet marketing tools.

Tuesday, March 4, 2014

Tips for Traveling with Pets

Pets are like family member for most people. Planning a trip with your pets can be a great experience for everyone.

Here are a few tips to make traveling with your pet enjoyable.

1) Feed your pets several hours before starting your journey: It is better to feed your pet several hours before starting your trip if you are worried that there is a possibility of your pet heaving and vomiting. Also, see to it that you have not left any morsels of food items like burgers wrappers or other choking hazards in the car.

2) Your pets safety should be the first priority: Pets may enjoy keeping his head out of the window, but this way riding can expose your pet to the risk of lung infections or ear damage. Also keep their paws inside.

3) Take/pack first aid kit: It is important to carry the essential items when traveling with pets. Some key items include pet's food, antiseptic cream, eye drops, tweezers and gauge tape. Moreover, packing some of your pet's favorite toys can make your pet feel comfortable while on road, especially when going for long trip. Make sure that you also have the phone number of your pet's vet in case of an emergency.

4) Use some restraint: Just like human beings, animals also need safety in the car. Carriers are best to secure your animal. We get these carriers in different shapes, sizes and materials. But see to it that, it is well ventilated. Its size should be in a way that your pet can sit and lie in it. Most important is, it should come in car.

5) Do not leave your pet alone in the car: In hot weather, temperature is more and  just like humans, animals can suffer from heat stroke easily and in a very cold climate, pats can suffer from hypothermia. Either of them can lead to serious health issues. If you want to leave your pet in the car and go for some work, roll down the window pans and park your car in shade.

6) Take short breaks throughout the journey: Make sure that you stop every hour or two and go for a walk. This will let your pet use toilet and can also stretch its legs. This is also a great way for your pet to avoid getting bored.

Traveling with your pets should be exciting and not a stressful one. By following these tips, you will enjoy taking your pet wherever you go.

Thursday, February 27, 2014

Disadvantages of Business Application software

There are certain disadvantages of business software applications. The development or purchase of software is quite costly to for businesses. It affects their budget, revenue and operations. Some software designed for a particular module or business might not support if the software is subject to expansion or additional functional requirement of business. Business software application can affect business with damaging effect of computer virus programs. Improper maintenance of infrastructure will lead to the data loss.

Now we will discuss the disadvantages of business software:
  • Delay in development: While developing the software, there is a constant communication needed between the client and the developer. It may affect the operations of such department. It leads to the delay in the business process which can be harmful.
  • Cost: The software is quite costly for small and medium companies. It will effect on the budget and revenue flow of the company. Even to train the employees the company has to spend the money as well time.
  • Compatible issues: The compatible issues are two types. Relating to the employees and the software. Some employees may not be compatible to work on the software or it is difficult for them to understand and use the software.
As regards software part, it may not fit for the organizational requirements and it might not support the current infrastructure. Some software applications are not compatible with other software applications.
  • Virus attacks: Computer virus attacks damage the entire information or partially. Sometimes, it is not possible to recover the data. Then it will be a great damage to the business.
  • Theft of data: Digital data theft are difficult to trace. In most situations, it is not possible even to identify the theft. The digital data can send out through so many mediums. Once it leaked out absolutely uncontrollable.
  • Hackers: Hackers are also a major problem. They try to get access to the data. Generally hackers targeted to the confidential information.
  • Power: Electricity is must to operate computer software. In the developing countries the power is very problematic. Power supply does not occur without interruptions. If the power is lost while working, whatever the data entered and not saved will gone. Sometimes it will lead to software crash. To avoid this power backup is essential, for which businesses incur cost.
Note that all these disadvantage, might not affect a single organization. Some of them can be factors of concern for businesses. It is also important that most of these disadvantages are caused because of mistakes in manual operations. You can avoid such mistakes proper planning and applying the software accurately.